نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Integrationism may be said to have been the third approach of social theorizing in the last three decades of the 20th century. This approach, influenced by two other approaches namely positivism and interpretationism, simultaneously integrates both voluntarism and structuralism. While voluntarism claims unlimited freedom for agents, structuralism believes that structure, society and system play as a determining factor which limits the action of any actor. Integrationists consider the followers of either voluntarism or structuralism reductionists who have methodological weaknesses. They seek to develop an integrationist theory with dialectical and reflexive correlation in a dynamic and historical framework (in modern world) on the basis of culture, communication and language. Bringing up his “structuration theory”, Giddens presents a dynamic model on the relation of agent and system (the independence of human being on one hand and determining effect of institutions in social interaction on the other hand- duality of structure). Combining the habit-like theory and field in “Genetic structuralism”, Bourdieu is looking for elimination of the contradiction between objectivism and subjectivism. Habermas, too, addressing the “Communicative action theory”, seeks to combine the knowledge system (objective factors) and human interests (subjective phenomena) – communicative rationality. All three thinkers try to contribute to both the human rehabilitation and dynamism of society.