عنوان مقاله [English]
The loss of war with Russia during the Qajar period caused Iranians to feel inferior to foreigners. Then Iranian elites assumed that in order to fill the gap between Iran and the foreign countries, Iran has to go through modernization. Modernization of Iran took several years and went through various phases each brought with it new concepts and theories. This article argues that though these concepts and theories were used in Iran but never really applied. The author believes that the Iranian historical existence is an aggregate of concepts and theories which resulted in a catastroph.