عنوان مقاله [English]
Thought currents and sociopolitical grounds in the recent decades at the world level led to rethinking in political theories and executive policymaking concerning the state as manifested by the rise of a conceptual framework and new method of policy-making called multiculturalism that focuses on the recognition of differences in public sphere. This emerging school of thought appeared as social philosophy depending on cultural and social backgrounds of different societies within the approaches of cultural nationalism policymaking and multiculturalism. Cultural nationalism approach refers to the demands of various minorities, indicating that public sphere particularly cultural realm should be a place for recognition of diversity and difference. Policymaking approach means a kind of practical mechanism for decision-making, governance, policymaking and inevitable confrontation of certain Western societies with the demographic requirements, issues and realities and emerging human diverse composition. The third approach is founded upon critique of excessive individualism of classical liberalism and rethinking in liberal social philosophy outlook towards the importance of individual and instead emphasis upon groups and cultures. In studying and analyzing the factors influencing the formation of each of these approaches, such parameters as the extensive wave of immigration following Second World War, impact of globalization, new communications and information technologies, rising awareness of minority cultural groups, and the rise and importance of such schools as communitarianism are considered as influential.