کاربست نظریه شکار-جادوگر برای تبیین جامعه‌شناختی تصفیه‌های انقلابی (روسیه، چین و ایران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه آموزش علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه فرهنگیان، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار پژوهشکده مطالعات اجتماعی

چکیده

تصفیه یکی از ویژگی‌های بارز انقلاب‌ها بوده است. هدف این مطالعه تبیین این پدیده از دریچه نظریه‌ی شکار جادوگر و مقایسه ویژگی‌های آن در رخدادهای تصفیه انقلابی در سه کشور روسیه، چین و ایران است.
روش مطالعه مقایسه‌ای بوده و به شیوه بازنمایی نظریه (parallel demonstration of theory) ویژگی‌های تصفیه‌های بزرگ سه کشور روسیه (تصفیه بزرگ استالین)، چین (تصفیه انقلاب فرهنگی مائو) و ایران (تصفیه اوایل دهه 60) مورد مقایسه تاریخی قرار گرفته‌اند. گردآوری داده‌ها از منابع دست‌اول و دوم صورت گرفته و تحلیل‌ها به شیوه مقایسه-تاریخی ارائه شده‌اند.
یافته‌های مطالعه ضمن تائید کلی مفروضات نظریه شکار-جادوگر در مورد سه رخداد تصفیه، نشان داده است تصفیه‌های روسیه، چین و ایران از بعضی جنبه‌ها مشابه و از بعضی جنبه‌ها متفاوت با یکدیگر هستند. طبق یافته‌ها هر سه رخداد در شرایطی بروز کرده‌اند که نمایندگی جمعی و منبع مشروعیت محدود بوده و نظام ارزشی زیربنای مشروعیت نظام در شرایط بحران بوده است. رهبران برای استقرار نظم یا نوسازی آن با نوسازی نظام اخلاقی انحراف سیاسی را به نحوی تعریف کرده‌اند که رقبا را تحت شمول قرار دهد. علاوه بر این تضعیف نهادهای مدنی واسط و تغییر اولویت‌ها باعث شده افراد دست از حمایت یکدیگر بردارند که نهایتاً به شکار جادوگر منجر شده است. تفاوت‌های ماهوی بین ایران و دو کشور دیگر وجود داشته است که پاک‌سازی انقلاب ایران را به شکل روندی همراه با انقلاب، دین‌محور، مشروع و دموکراتیک شکل داده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of witch-hunting theory for sociological explanation of revolutionary purifications (Russia. China and Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • hosein Ahmadi 1
  • Mohammadsalar Kasraie 2

1 Social Science Education Faculty, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor

چکیده [English]

Purification has been one of the salient features of revolutions. Purpose of this study is to explain this phenomenon through the lens of witch-hunting theory and compare its characteristics in the events of Russian, Chinese and Iranian revolutionary purification.
Methodologically this study was comparative and the characteristics of the three major Purges of Russia (Stalin's Great Refinement), China (Mao Cultural Revolution Refinement) and Iran (Refinement in the early 1980s) have been compared historically by parallel demonstration of theory model. Data were collected from primary and secondary historical sources and analyzes were presented comparative-historically.
The findings of the study, while generally confirming the assumptions of the witch-hunt theory about the three purification events, have shown that the purifications of Russia, China and Iran are similar in some respects and different in some others. Findings Shows, all three events occurred in a situation where collective representation and source of legitimacy were limited and the value system was the basis of the system's legitimacy in times of crisis. Leaders have defined political deviance in a way that includes rivals in order to establish or modernize order by modernizing the moral system. In addition, the weakening of intermediary civic institutions and the shift in priorities have led people to stop supporting each other, which has eventually led to witch hunts. There have been substantial differences between Iran and the other two countries that have shaped purge in Iranian revolution in a mid-revolutionary, religiously oriented, legitimate and democratic process.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Witch Hunting
  • Revolutionary Purification
  • cultural Revolution
  • Russia
  • China
  • Iran
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  • تاریخ دریافت: 10 مرداد 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 24 مهر 1399
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 30 آبان 1399